Your takeaways from this blog:
LakeDiamond SA - a startup incubated in EPFL Lausanne, Suisse - is growing synthetic diamonds in their reactor facilities. The main production is focused on high-tech applications. In a reactor, 6x6mm small square of diamond called “seed” will grow to a 4mm thick layer in approximately 20 days, leading to a diamond of 3 carats.
On the picture above, we can list from the left: a diamond plate, a reactor growing diamonds from seeds, a watch micromechanism.
In order to raise funds to build more reactors and improve its production capacity, LakeDiamond used a new crowdfunding mechanism: an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) on the Ethereum blockchain.
In the ICO, the public has the opportunity to purchase the LKD token, an ERC20 token living on the Ethereum network.
Usually, a token can allow:
In the case of LakeDiamond, the token represents a unit of time of production, exactly 1 minutes of diamond growth in a reactor located in LakeDiamond Labs. The LKD token is classified as a payment token by FINMA (Swiss Financial Authorities) because one of its use is to directly buy diamonds.
This token has three purposes for the users:
This token is only minted for the sale. Each time the token is used for a buy (A) or an exchange (B) with LakeDiamond, it is burned, decreasing the supply until no more tokens are available.
The token is just needed by LakeDiamond for the production scaling phase. Later on, when no more tokens are available, customers can still buy diamond with CHF and EUR, and LakeDiamond will keep the proceeds of the sales for themselves. The LKD platform assuring the exchange can be then decommissioned.
After the token distribution, there will be a period of a few years where LakeDiamond will not make much profit on their diamond sales, as they are captured by token owners, slowly removing the LKD from circulation. We can predict that high value sales (>
1 CHF) will be captured by LKD tokens, while small value sales (<
0.6 CHF) will be ignored by users and go back to LakeDiamond pockets.
We can see here that the LKD token has some really interesting features:
We could predict that as time goes, there will be less tokens available, and more high value sales to catch, pushing up the token price. The graph below shows the product roadmap coupled with the projected price per token.
Users owning LKD tokens have the opportunity to capture future diamond sales.
This diagram below represents the workflow of a typical diamond sale, from the industrial customer, to the opportunity for users to exchange their tokens (proposals) for some ETH (LakeDiamond order).
For that, users need to first register on the LKD platform and pass the KYC (Know Your Customer).
Then, they can propose to exchange their tokens, by making proposals with the following parameters:
The proposal will get included in a queue (technically an order book) next to other token owner proposals. The queue is ordered by the lowest price first, and if the same price exist, the oldest proposal will get exchange first.
When placing a proposal to sell LKD tokens on the LKD platform, users will in fact add a new record (via their Ethereum wallet) in a decentralised order book (a smart contract), meaning that LakeDiamond do not have control on creation or deletion of user records in this queue. The biggest advantage for the user is to be sure that each proposal is treated the same way, bringing transparency and fairness during the exchange of value with LakeDiamond.
There are 2 steps in this exchange:
First, users place some proposals (LKD amount, price in CHF) on the LKD platform, which end up in the order book smart contract
Then, after a physical diamond sale, LakeDiamond places a buyback order (LKD amount, price in CHF, ETH amount), which will match some proposals (listed in the order book) and distribute the rewards (ETH) to winners.
The smart contract order book is based on the Kyber decentralised order book. Their order book design offers the mechanisms to include a new record in an ordered list, with a minimum change in storage.
Our previous homemade order book experimentations required a loop on each record to check prices and timestamps, which quickly became expensive (and unusable) given the Ethereum gas price.
Luckily, when creating a new record, the Kyber order book just need to updates 2 record links: the preceding and the following. The trick is to work with relative links.
This example highlights inserting
proposal 60 in an actual order book containing already 3 records:
proposal 60 at price
1.1 CHF, you will need to check all prices to find the previous and the next records. For that, Kyber introduced a clever feature called Hint, giving you the possibility - when inserting a record - to precise where to insert your record, in our case Hint will be the
proposal 40. The order book will then receive:
InsertProposalWithHint (id: 60, price: 1.1 CHF, hint: 40)
From there, the order book smart contract will double check that previous and next records match the record price we want to insert. If not, it will look a bit further in the book and try to insert in the next following 10 records, if we set the customisable limit (hint_limit) to
Let's suppose four token owners made one proposal each in the following sequence:
A → B → C → D. The order-filling mechanism would be as follows:
Two proposals have the same price, which one will be used to fill the order? The order book will choose the older proposals first. That is why
proposal A is selected before
proposal D in this example.
What if there are not enough proposals to fill an order? The order will be filled as much as possible with existing proposals. The corresponding ETH will be distributed to these proposals, and the rest will be returned to LakeDiamond wallet.
Ps: the amount of ETH distributed to a proposal corresponds to the price per token set by the token owner during the proposal phase, and not the price per token of the order.
To give you a hint of how the platform looks like, we will describe below the full workflow of the developed LKD platform:
First the user needs to sign up with his email and an Ethereum address (Metamask is needed to interact with the platform). User will have to validate his email via a code sent to his mailbox.
The user then needs to fill some information (address, origin of funds, and ID) that we will validate automatically via our KYC provider.
The user can see the result of the KYC in the
Overview screen. Here the user Nico is allowed to exchange up to
100 000 LKD in a year.
To help LakeDiamond manage all their users, all information about users (name, address, KYC results) are recorded in a CRM (Customer relationship management), in our case: Pipedrive. After the user sends his information to the LKD platform, our backend will create in Pipedrive a new user Nico (along with all his related information).
ID documents, selfie, and automatic checks result on his age and name sanctions are present in the same screen. The CRM can help the admin to communicate (by email) with the user if some KYC documentation is missing.
At the same time, a deal is created for a target of
100 000 LKD, and attached to that user. The deal contains all the necessary flags to be reviewed by a KYC administrator.
Deals and KYC level can easily be tracked in the dashboard section. A KYC administrator can review Nico’s info, and click
Won if the profile is completed. The deal will then disappear from this screen.
After KYC validation from the admin, the user will have access to the dashboard.
First, he needs to connect his Metamask wallet with the button
Metamask is a free google chrome addon, where you are able to store ETH and LKD.
After the wallet is setup, Nico can see his dashboard with a quick view of his active proposals and the completed order of the last 30 days.
Below that, he can see the proposal list, and last completed orders.
Orders brings you to a detailed view of all orders completed by LakeDiamond.
Proposals brings you to a detailed view of all proposals make by yourself or others.
Nico wish to exchange
100 LKD for
From the dashboard screen, he can estimate his position in the order book:
From the estimation we can see that:
67 800 LKDtokens is already waiting for exchange (given a price of
171proposals (1 user could make one or more proposals)
PS: from these information, Nico could set his selling price below, like
0.9 CHF, which will certainly bring forward his proposal in the queue.
When he is sure of his choice, he presses
Create Proposal which will send the information to the order book smart contract via his Metamask wallet.
Few minutes later, his
proposal 570 will appear in the dashboard and his proposal list. Nico can cancel anytime his proposal as long as it has not been matched and exchanged by an order.
Today, an industrial client bought some diamonds, and the payment arrived. LakeDiamond converts the fiat into ETH, and open the LKD platform to the menu
Here LakeDiamond will create an order, which will eat the proposals in the order book from the bottom (smaller price first).
The order parameters are:
1 CHF(the order book will be eaten, starting from
0 CHF, to
200 LKD(this is the total amount of LKD token to buyback)
1.11 ETH(this is the equivalent of the diamond sales, converted from fiat)
Pushing the Create button will open the admin Metamask wallet, and the transaction will be sent to the smart contract.
The order creation step before will create
order 11, which will automatically eat
proposal 23 and
59, because they are the first in line for price (
0.12 CHF), and date of creation
In more detail we can see in Etherscan:
0.0773 ETHeach) going to the 2 proposals for the price of
0.12 CHFper token
1.41 ETHgoing back to the Admin wallet
200 LKDsend to 0x000 in order to burn them
As you can see, because both proposals wanted to exchange at a low rate of
0.12 CHF, LakeDiamond did not have to apply the
1 CHF rate per token. So
1.42 ETH is sent back to his wallet.
This behaviour is a great compromise between LakeDiamond and the token owners in the buyback mechanism:
If only one proposal exist at
1 CHF price, and an order for
0.9 CHF get created, they will be no matches. The ETH simply go back the LakeDiamond wallet, and the user proposal waits for a higher price.
Thought this post, I wanted to show you how a traditional company could use blockchain technology to scale his business, raising funds, and gradually sending back value to the users.
The LKD token is meant to be liquid with 3 methods of exit (buy diamonds, exchange on the LKD platform, secondary exchange).
The investors take risks, as always, when investing in startups. This token, even living on a decentralised network (Ethereum), brings risks too as it represents something very centralized (LakeDiamond production time).
The exchange happening on the LKD platform is designed to be fair and transparent. LakeDiamond cannot favour themselves or a friend when the buyback happens. Each step of the process - user proposals, orders and matching - can be monitored outside the LKD platform, on Etherscan.
I am sure this model could be greatly perfected and applied to many other companies seeking new investments for growth.
Some extra links:
Thank you for reading :-) See you in the next post! Greg